نویسنده : بهروز صادق مقدم ; ساعت ۱۱:٢٧ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٩/۸/٩

با سلام

یه مقاله خواندنی با نکات آموزشی زیاد در ارتباط با عنوان :

کاربرد برنامه های اینترنت و تلویزیون آموزشی در کلاس درس

Tips for Using Instructional Video and Public Television Programming in the Classroom

در ادامه مطالب قرار داده شده که هم اصل و ترجمه آن موجود میباشد.

منبع :

http://www.tv7.ir/portal/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=846:1389-03-12-11-43-11&catid=38:1388-10-07-07-50-47&Itemid=95


کاربرد برنامه های اینترنت و تلویزیون آموزشی در کلاس درس

 

استفاده از رسانه ها در امر آموزش ، باعث ارتقاء کیفیت یاد دهی – یادگیری شده است و به عنوان یکی ازمنابع یادگیری ، موردتوجه برنامه ریزان درسی ومعلمان می باشد و دراین میان‏، برنامه های آموزشی و درسی درقالب ویدیو و برنامه های تلویزیونی مورد توجه بیشتری واقع شده است. این برنامه ها که باسرفصل های آموزش رسمی وبرنامه های درسی مطابقت دارد بعنوان یک منبع غنی درافزایش سطح دانش،‏ نگرش و مهارت یادگیرندگان نقش مهمی را ایفا می کند. امروزه با گسترش فناوری های جدید و ورود این فناوری ها به عرصه ی آموزش ، دیگر توقعات وسطح انتظارات معلمان و دانش آموزان از شرایط و موقعیت های یاددهی – یادگیری به مانند گذشته نیست و اکثرمعلمان براین باورند که با استفاده ازچنین رسانه هایی می توانند محیط آموزشی خود را متنوع و جذاب نمایند.

استفاده ازفیلم های آموزشی دربردارنده ی امتیازات و فوایدی نیز می باشد که می توان به برخی ازآن ها به صورت مجمل اشاره کرد :
تمرکز روی جزئیات ( با استفاده از تصاویر با نمای بسته)
تلاش درجهت القاء مفاهیم به صورت واضح و روشن
ایجاد وارائه ی تجارب بصری متنوع خارج از فضای خشک کلاسی
به تصویرکشیدن متون درسی و تلاش درجهت درک مفهومی در سطوح بالاتر
تقویت یادگیری های قبلی

بکارگیری فیلم های آموزشـی ، مهارت هایی رانیز می طلــبد و بویژه کاربــرد آن ها درکلاس درس، که آمادگی معلم و دانش آموزان را می بایست به همراه داشته باشد.

آمادگی معلم
الف: اهداف آموزشی و یادگیری برنامه را مد نظر قراردهد.
ب: با متخصصان رسانه های آموزشی برای انتخاب برنامه های مناسب و درخور دانش آموزان مشورت نماید.
پ: معلم می بایست بخش هایی ازبرنامه را انتخاب کند که با اهداف آموزشی و نیازهای یاد گیرندگان مرتبط باشد. بدین منظور از راهنمایان آموزشی با توجه به ایده ها وفعالیت ها می تواند بهره بجوید.
ت: برنامه ی مورد نظر را از قبل ببیند و درصورت لزوم ، بخش های مرتبط را مشخص نماید.
ث: فعالیت های مورد نیاز خود را که پس ازدیدن برنامه لازم است لیست نماید.

آمادگی دانش آموز
الف: دانش آموزان را درابتدا با ارائه ی سوالات در زمینه ی موضوع مورد نظر، برانگیزانید.
ب: علت استفاده ازفیلم آموزشی رادرجریان آموزش ، برای دانش آموزان بازگو نمایید. پ: دانش آموزان را برای دیدن تصاویر بصری مهم آماده نمایید.
ت: درباره ی محتوی و نکات کلیدی و اصلی برنامه، با دانش آموزان گفتگو کنید.
ث: پس از تماشای برنامه ، فعالیت های انفرادی، بحث گروهی را برای دانش آموزان مشخص نمایید.
ج: برای درک بهتر مفهوم مورد آموزش، درباره ی کلمات و لغات جدیدی که دربرنامه گنجانده شده است توضیحاتی ارائه دهید.
چ : مفاهیم کلیدی مورداستفاده در برنامه را برای توضیحات بیشتر، بر روی تابلو یا ترانسپارنت (طلق شفاف) بنویسید. ‏

درجهت برقــراری تعامل با رســانه تلاش کنیــد:
الف: دانش آموزان را برای دیدن برنامه ی مورد نظر تشویق کنید و با ارائه ی اطلاعات خاص و ویژه توجه آن ها را ، برای تماشای برنامه جلب نمایید.
ب: برای دانش آموزان تکلیف یا وظیفه ای را مشخص کنید تا درحین دیدن یا پس از آن، نسبت به انجام آن اهتمام ورزند.
پ: بعد از انجام تکالیف توسط دانش آموزان ‏، آن ها را مورد بررسی قراردهید تا میزان موفقیت و یادگیری دانش آموزان را بسنجید.

فعالیت هایی که درحین دیدن برنامه می بایست انجام شود:
الف: همراه با دانش آموزان ، به تماشای برنامه بنشینید.
ب: برنامه را بصورت بخش بخش ببینید؛ به این معنا که ویدئو را متوقف کنید و با ارائه ی پرسش هایی ، دانش آموزان را برای بحث ترغیب نمایید و بدینوسیله تفکرانتقادی را درآن ها پرورش دهید؛ بعنوان مثال براساس آنچه که تا به اینجا ازبرنامه دیده اید فکر می کنید درادامه چه اتفاقی رخ دهد؟
پ: برنامه را بدون صدا و گفتار، به نظاره بنشینید و از دانش آموزان سوال کنید تا ببینید تا چه حد از برنامه را متوجه می شوند.
ت: صفحه ی تلویزیون یا نمایشگر را تاریک کنید وفقط صدای برنامه راپخش کنید.
ث: درحد 30 ثانیه کلیپ هایی از برنامه را نشان دهید تا برنامه حالت جاذبه داشته باشد.

فعالیت هایی که پس از دیدن برنامه می بایست انجام شود:
الف: درباره برنامه و آنچه دیده اید با دانش آموزان بحث ومناظره کنید.
ب: عکس العمل های گوناگون را مورد شناسایی قراردهید؛ به دانش آموزان فرصت دهید تا احساسات و تجارب خود را، ازدیدن این برنامه بیان کنند.
پ: بین برنامه پخش شده با تجارب گذشته ، ارتباط برقرارکنید و فعالیت های پیش بینی شده قبلی را انجام دهید.

ت: فعالیت های اضافی را معرفی و مطرح کنید:
نویسندگی خلاقانه
پروژه های بلند مدت
استفاده از روش ایفای نقش
انجام پروژه های هنری
تهیه و تولیدات ویدئویی
ملاقات با کارشناسان و متخصصان

استراتژی های استفاده از ویدئو و فیلم آموزشی
قبل از هر چیز، برنامه را مورد بازبینی قراردهید تا میزان دستیابی به اهداف آموزشی و درسی و نتایج و پیامدهای حاصله را ارزیابی نمایید؛ به بیان دیگر ببینید برنامه مناسب و درخور دانش آموزان است.
بخش هایی ازبرنامه را انتخاب کنید که بیشترین تناسب و هماهنگی را با سرفصل ها وموضوعات درسی، داشته باشد؛ چراکه فیلم آموزشی با نگاهی جامع طراحی وتولید می شود و حاوی اطلاعات فراوانی است که به یکباره ارائه می شود بهمین خاطر، باید بخش هایی ازآن انتخاب شود که فهم آن ، برای دانش آموزان کارسختی نباشد.
بهتراست محتوی برنامه قبل یا پس از تماشای برنامه توسط معلم تدریس شود یا حداقل درباره نکات کلیدی آن توضیحاتی بیان شود که این مساله آمادگی دانش آموزان را برای یادگیری ، بیشتر می کند و باعث می شود که آن ها با حالتی جدی تر به تماشای برنامه بنشینند.
باایجاد یک جو مناسب، دانش آموزان را به تعامل وادار کنید؛ بعنوان مثال می توانید تکالیفی را به آن ها محول کنید.درباره واژگان و لغات ناآشنای بکاربرده شده دربرنامه ، توضیحات بیشتری بدهید. با طرح سوال ، حس کنجکاوی را در دانش آموزان برانگیزانید. با انجام چنین اقداماتی می توانید محتوی را بصورت شفاف تر و واضح تر به دانش آموزان انتقال دهید.
قبل از تماشای فیلم آموزشی، مقدمه ای را بیان کنید و فعالیت هایی را که باعث ارتقای یادگیری در دانش آموزان می شود ذکر کنید. برنامه ی مورد نظر می بایست یک پیشینه اطلاعاتی را درباره ی یک موضوع خاص را ارائه کند؛ واژگان جدید را ضمن بکارگیری ، توضیح دهد؛ دانش آموزان را به کاربرد و تقویت دانسته ها وتجارب یادگیری قبلی و یادآوری اطلاعات قبلی تشویق نماید.

درحین تماشای برنامه می توانید ازدگمه توقف درویدیو استفاده کنید:
درک دانش آموزان را بسنجید.
سوالاتی رااز دانش آموزان بپرسید.
درثبت و ضبط اطلاعات ارائه شده به دانش آموزان کمک کنید و آن ها می توانند به تجزیه وتحلیل اطلاعات ارائه شده بپردازند و اتفاقات آینده را پیش بینی کنند.
بادقت بیشتری به اطلاعاتی که به صورت چارت، فرمول یا تصویر مهم در برنامه ارائه شده است بنگرند .
در صورتی که دیاگرام یاشکل پیچیده ای را می خواهند رسم کنند می توان فیلم را متوقف نمود.

عنوان لاتین مقاله :

 

Instructional video is an enhancing and enriching resource for classroom teachers and is designed to match curriculum areas. It provides:
• A sharp focus
• Clarity of concepts
• A historical perspective
• Expeditions into the real world
• Visual experiences from
beyond the classroom walls
• Enhancement of printed


I. Prior to the Video-Based Lesson
Teacher Preparation
A Consider the learning objectives.
B Consult the ITV Resource Guide to select appropriate programs.
C Look through the teacher's guide for ideas and activities. Teachers should select segments targeted to meet lesson objectives and students' needs.
D Preview the program. If necessary, determine order of segmentation.
E Consider post-viewing activities.

Student Preparation
A Ask students thought-provoking questions.
B Explain why the video is being used.
C Prepare students for important visual images.
D Discuss major points covered by the program.
E Provide focus activities or viewing directions for individuals, small groups, or the entire class.
F Present new vocabulary and/or review material necessary for understanding program content.
G List key concepts on the chalkboard or overhead projector.

 


materials and understanding of contemporary issues
• Higher learning outcomes
• An introduction
• A reinforcement



II. Focus for Media Interaction: Viewing Video
A Engage students' viewing attention by having them watch or listen for specific information.
B Give students a task to be completed during or after the video segment is shown.
C Check to see if students completed the task successfully.


III. Viewing Activities
A Keep lights on and watch the program with your students.
B Segment the viewing of the program. Stop the video and ask key questions to stimulate on-the-spot discussions and critical thinking. Example: Based on what you have seen so far, what do you think will happen next?
C Consider showing the video without sound. Narrate the program or ask a student to do so.
D Darken the screen and use only the audio component.
E Show brief clips. Only a 30-second image might be necessary.


IV. Post-Viewing Activities
A Discuss the program.
B Recognize diverse reactions. Help students relate the program to their own feelings and experiences.
C Connect the program to prior or anticipated classwork.
D Introduce extension activities, such as:
• Creative writing
• Long-term projects
• Role-playing
• Art projects
• Video productions
• Visits from experts



Video Utilization Strategies
Preview each program carefully to determine its suitability for achieving the lesson's objectives and the students' learning outcomes.


Select Segments that are most relevant to your lesson topic. Often a program has a great deal of information that cannot be digested at once; in that event, it is useful to show the program in segments so that its content is more easily understood.


Lights on During Viewing indicates to students that the video is an integral, active part of the lesson and that they are responsible for its content, as well as any pre-viewing or post-viewing instruction that may be given to them by the teacher.


Provide a Focus for Media Interaction. Provide students with a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments. Teachers should introduce videotape segments with a question, things to look for, unfamiliar vocabulary, or an activity that will make the program's content clearer.


Conduct Introductory and Culminating Activities. Integrate the video into the overall learning experience by framing the lesson with experiential components. Activities should be done prior to viewing videotape segments to set the stage, provide background information, identify new vocabulary words, or to introduce the topic. An additional activity should be done following viewing to reinforce, apply, review, or extend the information conveyed by the program.


Pause while viewing to:
• Check the students' comprehension
• Ask questions
• Have students record information, make predictions, analyze what they've seen
• Examine a chart, formula, or image on the screen more closely
• Have the students draw a diagram



Eliminate either the sound or the picture, if appropriate. For example, a segment may feature outstanding cinematography and/or graphics, but may be accompanied by narration inappropriate for your students. In such cases, turn down the volume and provide your own narration. Another strategy is to eliminate the sound and have your students describe the images they see. Alternatively, you can isolate the soundtrack by covering the monitor, and have your students guess what is happening based
on the narration alone. These strategies can be expanded with closed captioned programming: turn down the audio and have the students follow the action by reading along, or leave only the captioned text visible to reinforce vocabulary and improve reading comprehension.

Tips for Using the World WideWeb in the Classroom
The Web is an extremely rich and powerful classroom resource that, when used properly, can enhance your curriculum, motivate students, and address many different learning styles. Resources available on the Web range from extensive access to texts, such as the complete works of Shakespeare, to rich interactive multimedia and online activities, such as the Virtual Flylab. The Web can enhance almost any curriculum topic, provided that the time is taken to find precisely those Web sites that match the lesson goals,
learning objectives, and curriculum standards.The Web is a vast resource of relevant educational materials in many media, including images, text, interactive activities, and
collaborative projects.

 

The Web provides:
• Text resources: a veritable "library of Alexandria" at your fingertips: from the complete works of Shakespeare to the entire Buddhist Pali canon available online, the Web is a vast repository of text archives free and accessible to all;


• Virtual fieldtrips with walk-throughs, fly-bys, and virtual reality tours through all kinds of places: deep inside a cell, a simulation of a black hole in deep space, or "visits" to faraway locales and cultures;

• Up-to-the-minute information (real-time data) with stock prices, webcams, earthquake data, and satellite images;

• The ability for instant communication with other students and experts-in-the-field;


• Collaborative projects that are easily implemented;

• A place to showcase student work online.

 


I. Prior to the Media-Rich Lesson
Teacher Preparation
A Begin with the learning objectives and goals of the lesson; this is a good place to formulate some of the search terms to use in search engines. Careful listing of specific search terms canavoid irrelevant search query results.
B While doing an initial search for Web resources, bookmark relevant sites. Make notes about what to look for on each of the sites; simply cutting and pasting text and images from a Web site into a word processing document can start the process of creating student handouts.

C Evaluate what you have found for accuracy, age appropriateness, and relevance to the lesson.
D Look for connections among the sites that you have found; the careful selection of several complementary sites can suggest student activities such as comparisons and contrasts between two sets of data or two opposing viewpoints.
E Preview all sites again with a critical and discerning eye. How can these Web resources can be used in a lesson? Edit the list of Web sites collected into two groups: 1) those essential to the lesson and 2) those that are "filler" and may be relegated to a list of related sites for students to explore outside of class.
F If possible, "beta test" some of the Web sites with selected students to gauge their reactions and gain insight into how well
the Web sites match the learning objectives.


Student Preparation

A Ask students thought-provoking questions. Poll the students to assess their current knowledge; begin with the big ideas in an effort to dispel misconceptions in their understanding of the topic.
B Explain why the Internet is being used.
C Prepare students for significant and pertinent media and alert to them to what kinds of media they will be accessing: video, audio, photographs, illustrations, charts, or text.
D Discuss major components of the Internet resources. Tips for Using the World Wide Web in the Classroom 2.7
E Provide focus activities tied to the Web sites that can include worksheets, handouts, and scavenger hunts which can guide them in viewing the online resources.
F Present new vocabulary and/or review material necessary for understanding relevant content that will be accessed on the Web.
G Chart a pathway for students to follow in one of the following

ways:
• Create a word-processed document that students can access
on their computers to click through embedded Web links;
• Bookmark all Web sites on their computers; or
• Create a Web page with all lesson resources, questions,
vocabulary, and background information available to the
students.


II. Focus for Media Interaction: "Surfing the Web"
A Provide the students with a "context for the content" by having them watch for specific information. Provide a set of guidelines for collating data, saving images, or evaluating information found on the Web.
B Give students a set of assigned tasks on which to focus their attention while surfing through the Web sites. A student worksheet or checklist with questions and lists of things to see and explore on the Web will help keep the students "on task."
C Monitor and assist the students while they are on the Web. Check to see if they can complete the assigned tasks in the time allotted.


III. Surfing Activities
A Supervise the students while they are on the Web. Encourage the students to look for related links if they have extra time.
B Occasionally direct the entire group's attention to a particularly important Web site (a large monitor or projector can be used) and engage the students in on-the-spot discussions to promote critical thinking.
C Ask students to describe what they find and how they might verify the authenticity and accuracy of the information found on the selected Web sites.


IV. Post-Surfing Activities
A Create opportunities for the students to use the information they find in meaningful and educationally viable ways. Creating multimedia presentations, charting data, and
contributing to collaborative projects are all ways to involve the students in going beyond "information retrieval."
B Help students interpret and analyze what they have found, making connections to other curricular topics that they have
worked on or will be involved with in the future.
C Introduce curriculum extensions that demonstrate connections of the material to other disciplines. Science, math, art, music, social studies, language arts, and other interdisciplinary approaches to the topic can be supported with related Web sites.
D Devise an Action Plan that involves an activity connected to the world outside of the classroom: a field trip, a visit to the school by an expert, or e-mail exchange or campaign reinforce the lesson and add another dimension.


Internet Utilization Strategies

Media Prep. Determine suitability for achieving lesson objectives and student learning outcomes. Check to see that the entire site is age appropriate and that links from the site are also age appropriate. Make certain that site content is aligned with the stated goals of the lesson, and analyze the source of the site to assure its legitimacy. Prior to the start of class, visit the site (and all pages that you wish to highlight) for faster downloading of images and graphics during the demonstration.

 


Bookmarking. Before class begins, bookmark all lesson Web sites on demonstration and workstation computers. This will allow students to easily get to the Web pages that you wish them to see.
By clicking with the mouse on "Add Bookmarks" from the "Bookmarks" pull down menu in Netscape Navigator or "Add to Favorites" from the "Favorites" pull down menu in Internet
Explorer, the URL (Web address) will be easily accessible from your computer.


Provide a Focus for Media Interaction. Provide students with a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after interaction with Web sites. Teachers should introduce Web sites with a question, things to look for, unfamiliar vocabulary, or an activity that will make the site's content clearer.


Conduct Introductory and Culminating Activities. Integrate the Internet into the overall learning experience by framing the lesson with experiential components. Activities should be done prior to viewing Web sites to set the stage, provide background information, identify new vocabulary words, or to introduce the topic. An additional activity should be done following Internet use to reinforce, apply, review, or extend the information conveyed by the program. Tasks assigned should be objective, specific, and easy to assess.

 

 


Internet Utilizations StrategiesPause While Examining Web Sites to:
• Check for student comprehension
• Solicit inferences or predictions
• Highlight a point
• Define a word(s)
• Compare to real-life events
• Have students work online
• Solve a problem, form a hypothesis
• Enhance students' observation and memory skills.

 


Supervise the Students. The school should have a signed Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) from each student on file. Students should always be monitored while they are on the Internet to make certain they stay "on task" and are not visiting inappropriate or unrelated sites.


Reference Web Sites. Make certain students reference both text and images copied or referred to from the Web. Be sure to include the author, title, source, copyright date, and URL.

 

Copy and Paste. To avoid long printing queues, have students “copy and paste” only those images and text needed to complete an assignment into a word processing document. Show students how to send only one page of a particular Web site to the printer. Teach your students how to reference copyrighted materials.


NTTI Media-Rich Lesson Template
YOUR NAME


LESSON TITLE

Create a descriptive, catchy name for the lesson.
Example: “Come On, Baby, Light My Fire!”

GRADE LEVELS
State targeted grade level(s), but remember that all lessons may be adapted to any level.

TIME ALLOTMENT
Number and length of class periods needed to complete the lesson.

OVERVIEW
Provide a brief description of the lesson. Summarize goals and activities.

SUBJECT MATTER
List subject areas addressed in the lesson.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
List specific core-curriculum objectives and student outcomes.
Example: “Students will be able to…”

STANDARDS
List national and/or state standards that are addressed in the lesson.Please indicate the source of these standards.

MEDIA COMPONENTS
List video programs, Web sites, and any multimedia tools used in the lesson. When using video, list program title and episode number; when using the Web, list Web site title, URL, a 1-2

2.12 NTTI Media-Rich Lesson Template sentence description of the site, and any necessary plug-ins. For any other media tools, list title, computer platform, and distributor.

MATERIALS
List all outside materials needed to implement the lesson. Include amount needed Per Class, Per Group of Students, and/or Per Student.

PREP FOR TEACHERS
Instruct teachers to bookmark Web sites, load plug-ins, cue videotapes, and prepare student materials and hands-on elements of the lesson.


Your completed lesson plan should read like a script for the lesson. Include as much details as possible in the body of your lesson. When using media, provide students with a Focus for Media Interaction, a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites, or other multimedia elements.


INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY: SETTING THE STAGE
Write a detailed narrative description of activities, discussions, or media-integrated exercises that introduce the lesson, direct students to targeted concepts or objectives, and introduce the lesson vocabulary. Divide each component of the Introductory Activity into numbered steps.

LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Provide a detailed narrative description of the steps teachers will need to follow in order to successfully facilitate the lesson. Divide
each component of the Learning Activities into numbered steps. When using video, identify segments to be used with visual and/or
aural cues. Highlight interactive techniques such as those shown at right, indicating specific techniques and their rationales. Include
activities/discussions used between video segments.

When surfing the Web, describe procedures for teachers, sequence of surfing events, and background information. Embed Web titles

Interactive Techniques
Check (for comprehension)
Cue
Fast Forward
Focus for Media Interaction
Mute
Pause
Play
Rewind
Resume Play
Stop

and URL’s into lesson description. Include activities/discussions
used between Web sites.



CULMINATING ACTIVITY
Bring closure to the lesson with an activity tied to lesson objectives. A hands-on component is often included here. Handson activities are investigative, exploratory lesson components where students reinforce concepts and processes through their own manipulation of data, documents, or materials.

CROSS-CURRICULAR EXTENSIONS
List cross-curricular activities and interdisciplinary projects that may be generated from the lesson.

COMMUNITY CONNECTIONS
Include real-world actions students can take to follow through on lesson concepts. These include activities such as interviews, community-based art projects, performances, portfolios, and letter or email writing to relevant government, academic, or business personnel. For additional insight into community-based projects, go to the Making Family and Community Connections site at
www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/month9.

STUDENT MATERIALS
Your lesson plan must also include any worksheets, resources, or reference materials that will be distributed to students before, during, or after the lesson.



Techno-Tips: Video
Features to Increase Your Options

Remote
Provides teacher mobility in the classroom. Manufacturers have streamlined VCRs so that many features may now exist only on the remote.

Memory
When activated, tape will return to 0000 and stop. It is useful to set memory for multiple presentations.

 

Rewind
Press "Stop" first. The rewind will be faster, with less damage to the tape.

 

Fast Forward or Fast Scan or Search
Skip over what you don't want to show.

 

Slow Motion
Reduces action to component parts for analysis.

 

Frame Advance
Move forward one frame at a time.

 

Pause or Freeze Frame
Holds a single image for about two minutes.


Taping Programs

Programming
VCRs vary. Make sure you set the day/date/time (a.m., p.m. or 24 hour clock).

 

VCR Plus+
Widely sold device that simplifies off-air taping. Choose the program, then enter the five-digit code number published in many TV listings.

 

Speed
Most VCRs have 3 speeds. You lose some picture quality as you expand tape time. (T- refers to minutes in standard play.)

 

SP
Standard Play – (T-60 =1 hour; T-120 = 2 hours).

 

LP
Long Play – doubles time (T-60 = 2 hours; T-120 = 4 hours).

 

EP or SLP
Extended Play or Super Long Play – triples time (T-60 = 3 hours; T-120 = 6 hours).

New (Blank) Tapes

Fast forward to the end, then rewind to prevent distortion.

Saving Recordings
Removing the small plastic square in the spine of the cassette will prevent taping-over of the material on the cassette. Refer to the Overview of Educational Off-Air Recording Rights in your NTTI Binder for legal guidelines.

 

Troubleshooting
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide in your NTTI Binder. Also, refer to your VCR manual (many manufacturers have toll-free lines). You may also try calling your cable company.


Tips for Using Instructional Video and Public Television Programming in the Classroom





کلمات کلیدی :مقالات- آموزش و کلمات کلیدی :مطالب آزاد